L2, Medicine Through Time: Updated October 2017

New Unit 2: Renaissance.

See below for all materials relating to this unit. Continue to scroll down for the Paper outline, medieval unit and the in-class Prezi.

Renaissance Synthesis Sheets 

Mr Grattons Classes

L2m/Hi2 – Galen 

L2L/Hi2 – Pasteur 

Mr Edwards Classes

L2m/Hi 1

L2L/Hi1

NEW KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS

  1. Which physicians first argued that blood circulates repeatedly around the body pumped by the heart?
  2. What was the name of Vesalius’ book which contained many detailed drawings of the Human body?
  3. When did the Royal Society first meet?
  4. Who was considered the ‘English Hippocrates’? why?
  5. Who discovered the use of ligatures to tie around blood vessels to prevent blood loss in surgery?
  6. Where were some sufferers of the Black Death put in quarantine?
  7. Who discovered the printing press?
  8. Who discovered the use of quinine to treat malaria?
  9. What was the publication of the Royal Society called?
  10. When did Vesalius published his most famous book?
  11. The period of the Medical Renaissance begins and ends when?
  12.  Who illustrated the ‘Fabric of the Human Body’?  
  13. List the three common steps in the Scientific Method.
  14.  What did Vesalius discover that began him to question Galen?
  15. What did Harvey discover which questioned Galen’s ideas?
  16. What was the title of Harvey’s 1628 publication?
  17. What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek discover in 1683?
  18. In understanding the causes of illness the second and Great Plague led to what major realisation/breakthrough?
  19. What was the title of Pares’ 1575 influential work on surgical practice?
  20. The term Renaissance means?

See below for Paper details, additional materials and Unit 1

Page Outline: 

  • Paper Overview
  • Session Presentation (Prezi)
  • Master Classes for each Unit
  • Synthesis Sheets
  • Pragmatic Rehearsal – Exam papers for each Unit
  • Revision materials, videos, questions

Paper Outline: 

Scheme of Learning for the course can be found here

Question by Question guide and mark scheme can be found here

Assessing Your Understanding:

Self Assessment document can be found here and in your folders.

Through a study of the specified content, you will need to be able to:

I Can… (Understanding)
I can show an understanding of the nature of medicine and public health
I can show an understanding of the extent of change in medicine and public health
I can show an understanding of the impact of the specified developments in medicine and public health
I can show an understanding of patterns of change, trends and turning points
I can show an understanding of whether change brought progress
I can show an understanding of the process of change
I can show an understanding of the factors bringing about change at different times
I can relate developments in medicine and public health to the wider historical context

FACTORS

You will explore the following causal factors throughout the course, considering how they cause both Change and Continuity. 

Causal Factors

Causal Factors

Causal Factors

Causal Factors

Individuals

Economics

War/Conflict

Government

Religion

Attitudes and Beliefs

Science

Technology

THEMES

During this course you will investigate the following themes:

  • Ideas about the cause and treatment of disease and illness. 
  • Approaches to public health and prevention of disease and illness. 
  • The influence of changes in society on medicine and public health. 

These themes will be explored within and across the time period 1250AD-2017.


PERIODS

The course is divided up into time periods to make your note taking and revision easier. However the examination will ask you questions drawn from a number of time periods and not just one.

Period

c1250 – 1600 (including ref to period before 1250)
c1600–c1750
c1750–c1900
c1900 to the present day

Medicine – Key dates

900AD – First university medical school in Europe set up

1348 – Black Death

1492 – Europeans landed in America (brought back new treatments – herbs / plants C15th)

1530s – Henry VIII closes monestaries

1543 – Vesalius publishes, ‘The Fabric of the Human Body’

1575 – Pare publishes ‘Works on Surgery’

1628 – Harvey publishes, ‘An anatomic account of the Motion of the Heart and the Blood in Animals’

1665 – The Great Plague

1798 – Edward Jenner presents his findings on the Smallpox vaccine to the Royal Society

1805 – Napoleon vaccinated all his soldiers

1816 – stethoscope invented

1832, 1848, 1854 and 1865 – Cholera epidemics

1842 – Edwin Chadwick wrote ‘A report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring population’

1947 – James Simpson experiments with chloroform on his dinner guests

1848 – Public Health Act

1852 – vaccination against Smallpox was made compulsory in Britain

1854 – John Snow discovered cholera was caused by contaminated water

Crimean War started (Nightingale reduces deaths in army hospitals)

1859 – Florence Nightingale publishes ‘Notes on Nursing’

1861 – Louis Pasteur publishes ‘Germ theory’

1867 – Lister performs first operations with Carbolic Acid

1876 – law passed opening all medical qualifications to women

1882 – Robert Koch discovers the cause of TB (1883 – Cholera)

Pasteur develops vaccine for rabies

1875 – Public Health Act

1878 – Koch discovered the bacterium which caused Septicaemia

All surgical instruments steam sterilised

1894 – sterilised rubber gloves used for the first time

1895 – Wilhelm Roentgen discovers X-rays

1901 – Different blood groups discovered

1905 – Paul Ehrlich discovers the first magic bullet (Salverson 606)

1909 – Back to back houses banned

1911 – National Health Insurance

1914-1918 – WW1 – X-rays / skin grafts / blood transfusions

1919 – Homes for heroes

1928 – Alexander Fleming discovered properties of penicillin

1930s – slum clearance

1932 – Gerhardt Domagk discovers the second magic bullet – Protosil

1941 – First human trial of penicillin

1942 – Beveridge report

1946 – Bill passed in parliament to introduce the NHS

1953 – Crick and Watson discover DNA

1956 – Clean air act

You do not need to know all of these off by heart but knowing some will be very useful.  You need to know roughly what period of time each development came in.  You could divide these into different areas of medicine (ie highlight treatments in one colour / public health in another) and periods of time (ie draw a line between different periods of time)

Develop Your Knowledge

  1. What is the name of the Roman goddess of Health?
  2. How many books were in the Hippocratic Corpus?
  3. Name three things the Romans built to aid the health of the urban population.
  4. In Galen’s most famous experiment on a live pig what did he prove?
  5. What was the physical temperament for yellow bile?
  6. Who was at the top of the Roman social structure, thus accessing the greatest health care?
  7. What is the theory/belief of bad air causing illness?
  8. What is antiseptic?
  9. Why did doctors study start charts?
  10. Why did doctors bleed some patients?
  11. Hugh and Theodoric of Luca influenced which aspect of MTT?
  12. Hugh of Luca advocated what practice?
  13. Name one impact on MTT of a centralised governmental system such as the Roman rule over Britannia and feudal rule of Medieval Monarchs?
  14. Name three beliefs held in Romano Britain for the causes of illness.
  15. Name three aspects of physiology that Galen accurately proved.
  16. Order religious beliefs for the period 50-1350Ad
  17. What role did Roman soldiers play in aiding public health?
  18. Name the 4 Humours.
  19. Name the 3 schools of medicine set up in Italy during the Medieval period.
  20. Who was Guy de Chauliac?
  21. What was the purpose of a Medieval Urine Chart?
  22. Why did Medieval doctors carry posies, oranges and lighted tapers?
  23. What aspect of MTT does a gongfermer relate to?
  24. St Bart’s is an example of?
  25. Name the most influential Muslim doctor on British Medicine during the Medieval period?
  26. Whose ideas had the Church’s seal of approval?
  27. What new development did hemlock and opium allow in Medieval times?
  28. What is a lazar house a good example of?
  29. Who, in Medieval times, identified the importance of a good diet?
  30. Spell the word for pain relief.
  31. Who developed Germ Theory?
  32. What aspect of MTT to Snow contribute to?
  33. What role was played by Chadwick?
  34. Give the date of one public health act.
  35. Koch developed what?
  36. What is Ehrlich associated with?
  37. Who developed principles of nursing and hospital care?
  38. What was the main illness treated in hospitals in the 19th century?
  39. Who funded 19th century hospital care?
  40. State the steps of the Scientific method.

Session Presentations:

Unit 1: What were the key features of
Medieval Medicine and public health within Britain 1250-1500?

Unit Outline sheet

Masterclass:

Medieval Period Outline

 

Synthesis Sheet L2M/HI1 Mr Edwards Class

Synthesis Sheet L2M/HI2 Galen Class – Mr Grattons Class

Synthesis Sheet L2L/HI1 Ms Pacaradas Class

Synthesis Sheet L2L/HI2 Pasteur Class – Mr Grattons Class


 

REVISE MTT

Revision is an ongoing process and not something you do in the short weeks before the final examination.

Across the weeks and months to come you should seek to REVISE MTT Unit 2 and 3 so you can effectively complete the two exam papers this summer.

To support you in this endeavour,

1: use the REVISE method

2: use all the material on the platform and the shared folder, your folder and your booklets

3: construct a revision tool and share it with others through your teacher.

REVISE

Read over it

Explain it with factual examples from memory

Visualise it through diagram and poster construction

Identify what you don’t yet know through brainstorming

Speak it to another, debate extent and why questions and the value of evidence

Experience it by completing times exam Q and full paper practice (Every Q you do will be marked by your teacher)

Revision Tools

Produce one of the following and share it with your teacher:

  • A series of diagrams summarising Change, Continuity and Causation in relation to the different aspects of MTT
  • A video, with appropriate images, where you discuss Change, Continuity and Causation in relation to the different aspects of MTT
  • An audio/podcast of you discussing Change, Continuity and Causation in relation to the different aspects of MTT
  • A Google Slides presentation addressing Change, Continuity and Causation in relation to the different aspects of MTT

Knowledge + Skill + Commitment = Success 


Transformation of Surgery 

Pain + Infection + Bloodloss

 Surgery 

Test your knowledge: 19th century Surgery

20th Century Surgery : http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/shp/modern/twentiethcenturysurgeryrev1.shtml

Test yourself: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/quiz/q14136384

19th Century Surgery:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/shp/modern/indrevsurgeryrev1.shtml

Test yourself:http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/quiz/q20788534

Revision Quiz: https://getrevising.co.uk/revision-tests/surgery_1845_1918_1

 

Key individuals

  • Ambroise Pare
  • James Simpson / John Snow
  • Ignaz Semmelweiss
  • Joseph Lister
  • Karl Landsteiner
  • What were the Key problems? Explain.
  • What techniques were used?
  • How might people feel about having surgery in this period?
  • Describe the role of Barber surgeons.
  • What anaesthetics were available to use at the beginning of the 19th C? Dealing with Pain
  • Why was pain a problem in the 19th Century?
  • Why was speed needed? How did this cause further problems?
  • Explain the discovery of anaesthetics between 1799-1850.
  • Explain the importance of the discovery of ether and chloroform.
  • What factors influenced Simpson – chance; genius and science.
  • Why did some people oppose the use of anaesthetics?
  • What was the argument for anaesthetics – Queen Victoria…? Dealing with Infection
  • Why was infection a problem?
  • How was Semmelweiss’ work a turning point in dealing with infection?
  • Describe Joseph Lister’s measures to reduce infection.
  • Who opposed Lister’s work and why? Dealing with Blood Loss
  • Explain how the problem of blood loss was overcome.
  • Identify the key stages in dealing with the problem of blood loss – Landsteiner?
  • Explain how key factors played a part in solving the problem of blood loss. Factors influencing developments in surgery

Use this booklet to revise in detail Surgery

 ‘Modern Medicine’ 1900-2016

Key Content:

• Ideas about the cause and treatment of disease and illness.
• Approaches to public health and prevention of disease and illness.
• The influence of changes in society on medicine and public health.

Amplification of content
Ideas about the cause and treatment of disease and illness: the
significance of Crick and Watson’s discovery of the DNA structure.
Developments in the fight against disease: magic bullets and a new
pharmaceutical industry; the development of antibiotics and the work of
Fleming, Florey and Chain; high-tech medicine and treatment.

Approaches to public health and prevention of disease and illness: increased use of vaccinations; improved access to treatments available
through state funding of medical and hospital care; Liberal welfare reforms in the early twentieth century; the establishment of the National Health Service and the role of Aneurin Bevan; widening scope of government provision in the later twentieth century – education and regulation for health, for example in relation to smoking and diet.

Medicine and public health in context: the contribution of science and
technology to research, diagnosis and treatment, for example in enabling x-rays, radiotherapy, scans and dialysis; the links between increased government intervention in the lives of citizens in the twentieth century and the changes in healthcare provision.

MTT overviews 

A slightly outdated video but gives you a lot of relevant content.
Bacteriology

Magic Bullet

NHS

 Revision Videos

Physiology 1

Cause and Cure 1

Surgery 1 (click-download-view)

Surgery 2

Public Health

Constantly test yourself using these links and tests:

Roman
Medieval
Renaissance
19th Century 1
19th Century 2
20th Century