L2, Medicine Through Time: Updated September 2016

REVISE MTT

Revision is an ongoing process and not something you do in the short weeks before the final examination.

Across the weeks and months to come you should seek to REVISE MTT Unit 2 and 3 so you can effectively complete the two exam papers this summer.

To support you in this endeavour,

1: use the REVISE method

2: use all the material on the platform and the shared folder, your folder and your booklets

3: construct a revision tool and share it with others through your teacher.

REVISE

Read over it

Explain it with factual examples from memory

Visualise it through diagram and poster construction

Identify what you don’t yet know through brainstorming

Speak it to another, debate extent and why questions and the value of evidence

Experience it by completing times exam Q and full paper practice (Every Q you do will be marked by your teacher)

Revision Tools

Produce one of the following and share it with your teacher:

  • A series of diagrams summarising Change, Continuity and Causation in relation to the different aspects of MTT
  • A video, with appropriate images, where you discuss Change, Continuity and Causation in relation to the different aspects of MTT
  • An audio/podcast of you discussing Change, Continuity and Causation in relation to the different aspects of MTT
  • A Google Slides presentation addressing Change, Continuity and Causation in relation to the different aspects of MTT

Knowledge + Skill + Commitment = Success 


Examined Unit 3: Transformation of Surgery (September-November)

An understanding of the way surgery was perceived before anaesthetics were available.

Developments in dealing with the three main problems in surgery: pain, infection and blood loss and improvements in surgery during the First World War.

An understanding of the main factors in uencing these changes.

Overview of assessment

  • This unit is assessed through a 1-hour and 15-minute examination.
  • The question paper has six to eight sources and ve questions and there are 53 marks available.
  • Of the 53 raw marks available, up to 3 marks are awarded for Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar (SPaG).

 

Surgery outline video

Test your knowledge: 19th century Surgery

20th Century Surgery : http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/shp/modern/twentiethcenturysurgeryrev1.shtml

Test yourself: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/quiz/q14136384

19th Century Surgery:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/shp/modern/indrevsurgeryrev1.shtml

Test yourself:http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/quiz/q20788534

Revision Quiz: https://getrevising.co.uk/revision-tests/surgery_1845_1918_1


 

Outline of and approaches to the Exam Paper Question by Question.


Surgery Notes

Key individuals

  • Ambroise Pare
  • James Simpson / John Snow
  • Ignaz Semmelweiss
  • Joseph Lister
  • Karl Landsteiner
  • What were the Key problems? Explain.
  • What techniques were used?
  • How might people feel about having surgery in this period?
  • Describe the role of Barber surgeons.
  • What anaesthetics were available to use at the beginning of the 19th C? Dealing with Pain
  • Why was pain a problem in the 19th Century?
  • Why was speed needed? How did this cause further problems?
  • Explain the discovery of anaesthetics between 1799-1850.
  • Explain the importance of the discovery of ether and chloroform.
  • What factors influenced Simpson – chance; genius and science.
  • Why did some people oppose the use of anaesthetics?
  • What was the argument for anaesthetics – Queen Victoria…? Dealing with Infection
  • Why was infection a problem?
  • How was Semmelweiss’ work a turning point in dealing with infection?
  • Describe Joseph Lister’s measures to reduce infection.
  • Who opposed Lister’s work and why? Dealing with Blood Loss
  • Explain how the problem of blood loss was overcome.
  • Identify the key stages in dealing with the problem of blood loss – Landsteiner?
  • Explain how key factors played a part in solving the problem of blood loss. Factors influencing developments in surgery

Use this booklet to revise:

 

 

UPDATE: During week beginning the 12th of September you will complete a full MTT paper in class under timed conditions. 

This will draw upon all your knowledge and require you to apply the skills linked with the 5 questions. 

Begin preparing now for this assessment, the results of which will determine if you have to attend mandatory booster classes. 

Week beginning the 5th September: Complete Modern Medicine and summaries our learning, begin revising for examination.

Week beginning the 12th September: Prepare for timed examination. (mark scheme)


 

REVISE:

A slightly outdated video but gives you a lot of relevant content.
Bacteriology

Magic Bullet

NHS

Constantly test yourself using these links and tests:
Roman
Medieval
Renaissance
19th Century 1
19th Century 2
20th Century

 

NEW: Unit 4 Outline ‘Modern Medicine’ 1900-2016

Key Content:

• Ideas about the cause and treatment of disease and illness.
• Approaches to public health and prevention of disease and illness.
• The influence of changes in society on medicine and public health.

Amplification of content
Ideas about the cause and treatment of disease and illness: the
significance of Crick and Watson’s discovery of the DNA structure.
Developments in the fight against disease: magic bullets and a new
pharmaceutical industry; the development of antibiotics and the work of
Fleming, Florey and Chain; high-tech medicine and treatment.

Approaches to public health and prevention of disease and illness: increased use of vaccinations; improved access to treatments available
through state funding of medical and hospital care; Liberal welfare reforms in the early twentieth century; the establishment of the National Health Service and the role of Aneurin Bevan; widening scope of government provision in the later twentieth century – education and regulation for health, for example in relation to smoking and diet.

Medicine and public health in context: the contribution of science and
technology to research, diagnosis and treatment, for example in enabling x-rays, radiotherapy, scans and dialysis; the links between increased government intervention in the lives of citizens in the twentieth century and the changes in healthcare provision.

Scroll down to access all unit resources

Edexcel’s Medicine and public health in Britain c50AD to the present day 

This examined unit is assessed through a 1-hour and 15-minute examination. You will answer five questions and there are 53 marks available. Of the 53 marks available, up to 3 marks are awarded for Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar (SPaG).

Click here to see a past exam paper. 

We have divided the course up into a number of units, mostly based around the time periods. Within each unit you will develop K and U specific to M and PH in that time period. You will also undertake a series of Master Classes linked to examined skills. You will also work collaboratively on a mini project; one per unit.

The below links will take you to each unit outline:

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3: Renaissance 1350-1750

Unit 4: Industrial revolution and Modernisation 1750-1900

Develop Your Knowledge

  1. What is the name of the Roman goddess of Health?
  2. How many books were in the Hippocratic Corpus?
  3. Name three things the Romans built to aid the health of the urban population.
  4. In Galen’s most famous experiment on a live pig what did he prove?
  5. What was the physical temperament for yellow bile?
  6. Who was at the top of the Roman social structure, thus accessing the greatest health care?
  7. What is the theory/belief of bad air causing illness?
  8. What is antiseptic?
  9. Why did doctors study start charts?
  10. Why did doctors bleed some patients?
  11. Hugh and Theodoric of Luca influenced which aspect of MTT?
  12. Hugh of Luca advocated what practice?
  13. Name one impact on MTT of a centralised governmental system such as the Roman rule over Britannia and feudal rule of Medieval Monarchs?
  14. Name three beliefs held in Romano Britain for the causes of illness.
  15. Name three aspects of physiology that Galen accurately proved.
  16. Order religious beliefs for the period 50-1350Ad
  17. What role did Roman soldiers play in aiding public health?
  18. Name the 4 Humours.
  19. Name the 3 schools of medicine set up in Italy during the Medieval period.
  20. Who was Guy de Chauliac?
  21. What was the purpose of a Medieval Urine Chart?
  22. Why did Medieval doctors carry posies, oranges and lighted tapers?
  23. What aspect of MTT does a gongfermer relate to?
  24. St Bart’s is an example of?
  25. Name the most influential Muslim doctor on British Medicine during the Medieval period?
  26. Whose ideas had the Church’s seal of approval?
  27. What new development did hemlock and opium allow in Medieval times?
  28. What is a lazar house a good example of?
  29. Who, in Medieval times, identified the importance of a good diet?
  30. Spell the word for pain relief.
  31. Who developed Germ Theory?
  32. What aspect of MTT to Snow contribute to?
  33. What role was played by Chadwick?
  34. Give the date of one public health act.
  35. Koch developed what?
  36. What is Ehrlich associated with?
  37. Who developed principles of nursing and hospital care?
  38. What was the main illness treated in hospitals in the 19th century?
  39. Who funded 19th century hospital care?
  40. State the steps of the Scientific method.

 

Develop Your Understanding 

Unit 1 Synthesis sheet

Mr Grattons Class

Miss Butler’s Class

Mr Boot’s Class

Unit 2 Synthesis sheet

Mr Grattons Class

Miss Butler’s Class

Mr Boot’s Class

Unit 3 Synthesis sheet

Unit 4 Synthesis sheet

Mr Grattons Class 

Mr Boot’s Class

Unit 5 Synthesis Sheets


 Revision Videos

UNIT 1

Physiology 1

Cause and Cure 1

Surgery 1 (click-download-view)

Surgery 2

Public Health

 

Examination Practice

Mark Scheme 

Exam 1 50-1350

Exam 2 Renaissance

Exam 3 50-1900

Exam 4 50-2016

Assessing Your Understanding

Through a study of the specified content, you will need to be able to:

I Can… (Understanding)
I can show an understanding of the nature of medicine and public health
I can show an understanding of the extent of change in medicine and public health
I can show an understanding of the impact of the specified developments in medicine and public health
I can show an understanding of patterns of change, trends and turning points
I can show an understanding of whether change brought progress
I can show an understanding of the process of change
I can show an understanding of the factors bringing about change at different times
I can relate developments in medicine and public health to the wider historical context

FACTORS

You will explore the following causal factors throughout the course, considering how they cause both Change and Continuity. 

Causal Factors

Causal Factors

Causal Factors

Causal Factors

Individuals

Economics

War/Conflict

Government

Religion

Attitudes and Beliefs

Science

Technology

THEMES

During this course you will investigate the following themes:

  • Ideas about the cause and treatment of disease and illness. 
  • Approaches to public health and prevention of disease and illness. 
  • The influence of changes in society on medicine and public health. 

These themes will be explored within and across the time period 50AD-2016.


PERIODS

The course is divided up into time periods to make your note taking and revision easier. However the examination will ask you questions drawn from a number of time periods and not just one.

Period

c50AD–c1350
c1350–c1750
c1750–c1900
c1900 to the present day

Medicine – Key dates

900AD – First university medical school in Europe set up

1348 – Black Death

1492 – Europeans landed in America (brought back new treatments – herbs / plants C15th)

1530s – Henry VIII closes monestaries

1543 – Vesalius publishes, ‘The Fabric of the Human Body’

1575 – Pare publishes ‘Works on Surgery’

1628 – Harvey publishes, ‘An anatomic account of the Motion of the Heart and the Blood in Animals’

1665 – The Great Plague

1798 – Edward Jenner presents his findings on the Smallpox vaccine to the Royal Society

1805 – Napoleon vaccinated all his soldiers

1816 – stethoscope invented

1832, 1848, 1854 and 1865 – Cholera epidemics

1842 – Edwin Chadwick wrote ‘A report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring population’

1947 – James Simpson experiments with chloroform on his dinner guests

1848 – Public Health Act

1852 – vaccination against Smallpox was made compulsory in Britain

1854 – John Snow discovered cholera was caused by contaminated water

Crimean War started (Nightingale reduces deaths in army hospitals)

1859 – Florence Nightingale publishes ‘Notes on Nursing’

1861 – Louis Pasteur publishes ‘Germ theory’

1867 – Lister performs first operations with Carbolic Acid

1876 – law passed opening all medical qualifications to women

1882 – Robert Koch discovers the cause of TB (1883 – Cholera)

Pasteur develops vaccine for rabies

1875 – Public Health Act

1878 – Koch discovered the bacterium which caused Septicaemia

All surgical instruments steam sterilised

1894 – sterilised rubber gloves used for the first time

1895 – Wilhelm Roentgen discovers X-rays

1901 – Different blood groups discovered

1905 – Paul Ehrlich discovers the first magic bullet (Salverson 606)

1909 – Back to back houses banned

1911 – National Health Insurance

1914-1918 – WW1 – X-rays / skin grafts / blood transfusions

1919 – Homes for heroes

1928 – Alexander Fleming discovered properties of penicillin

1930s – slum clearance

1932 – Gerhardt Domagk discovers the second magic bullet – Protosil

1941 – First human trial of penicillin

1942 – Beveridge report

1946 – Bill passed in parliament to introduce the NHS

1953 – Crick and Watson discover DNA

1956 – Clean air act

You do not need to know all of these off by heart but knowing some will be very useful.  You need to know roughly what period of time each development came in.  You could divide these into different areas of medicine (ie highlight treatments in one colour / public health in another) and periods of time (ie draw a line between different periods of time)

 


Develop your Skills

This will connect you to all the Master Classes completed throughout the MTT course. All Master Classes delivered in class time can and should be revisited. 

Industrial master Classes: Key individuals 


 

Session Presentations